“IOTD” is image of the day, a concept I came up with. I teach visual meditative therapy – or in easy terms – a mini mental holiday. For some people it is very difficult for them to get their image right. I post an image a day for people to use in their mini mental vacay. Some are serious, some are silly, and some are just beautiful!”
I never had any children of my own. However, at this time in my life, I have been part of the care giving of four grandchildren. And I have learned a lot …. this is one of the issues we seem to be dealing with at this time.
I’ve been researching and find it very surprising that, in spite of being in the medical field, I wasn’t aware of this disorder. I’ve never found myself in this type of situation.
As I search for information, it seems to be that there are many families out there who could be dealing with this disorder.
~Oppositional defiant disorder~
Definition Mayo Clinic Staff
Even the best-behaved children can be difficult and challenging at times. But if your child or teen has a frequent and persistent pattern of anger, irritability, arguing, defiance or vindictiveness toward you and other authority figures, he or she may have oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).
As a parent, you don’t have to go it alone in trying to manage a child with ODD. Doctors, counselors and child development experts can help.
Treatment of ODD involves therapy, training to help build positive family interactions and skills to manage behaviors, and possibly medications to treat related mental health conditions.
Sometimes it’s difficult to recognize the difference between a strong-willed or emotional child and one with oppositional defiant disorder. It’s normal to exhibit oppositional behavior at certain stages of a child’s development.
Signs of ODD generally begin during preschool years. Sometimes ODD may develop later, but almost always before the early teen years. These behaviors cause significant impairment with family, social activities, school and work.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, lists criteria for diagnosing ODD. This manual is used by mental health providers to diagnose mental conditions and by insurance companies to reimburse for treatment.
DSM-5 criteria for diagnosis of ODD show a pattern of behavior that includes at least four symptoms from any of these categories
angry and irritable mood; argumentative and defiant behavior; or vindictiveness
Occurs with at least one individual who is not a sibling
Causes significant problems at work, school or home
Occurs on its own, rather than as part of the course of another mental health problem, such as a substance use disorder, depression or bipolar disorder
Lasts at least six months
DSM-5 criteria for diagnosis of ODD include both emotional and behavioral symptoms.
Angry and irritable mood
Often loses temper
Is often touchy or easily annoyed by others
Is often angry and resentful
Argumentative and defiant behavior
Often argues with adults or people in authority
Often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults’ requests or rules
Often deliberately annoys people
Often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior
Is often spiteful or vindictive
Has shown spiteful or vindictive behavior at least twice in the past six months
These behaviors must be displayed more often than is typical for your child’s peers. For children younger than 5 years, the behavior must occur on most days for a period of at least six months. For individuals 5 years or older, the behavior must occur at least once a week for at least six months.
ODD can vary in severity
Mild: Symptoms occur only in one setting, such as only at home, school, work or with peers. Moderate: Some symptoms occur in at least two settings. Severe: Some symptoms occur in three or more settings.
For some children, symptoms may first be seen only at home, but with time extend to other settings, such as school and with friends.
There’s no known clear cause of oppositional defiant disorder. Contributing causes may be a combination of inherited and environmental factors, including:
Genetics — a child’s natural disposition or temperament and possibly neurobiological differences in the way nerves and the brain function Environment — problems with parenting that may involve a lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect
Oppositional defiant disorder is a complex problem. Possible risk factors for ODD include:
Temperament — a child who has a temperament that includes difficulty regulating emotions, such as being highly emotionally reactive to situations or having trouble tolerating frustration Parenting issues — a child who experiences abuse or neglect, harsh or inconsistent discipline, or a lack of parental supervision Other family issues — a child who lives with parent or family discord or has a parent with a mental health or substance use disorder
Children with oppositional defiant disorder may have trouble at home with parents and siblings, in school with teachers, at work with supervisors and other authority figures, and may struggle to make and keep friends and relationships.
ODD may lead to problems such as:
Poor school and work performance Antisocial behavior Impulse control problems Substance use disorder Suicide
Many children with ODD also have other mental health conditions, such as:
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Depression Anxiety Conduct disorder Learning and communication disorders
Treating these other mental health conditions may help improve ODD symptoms. And it may be difficult to treat ODD if these other conditions are not evaluated and treated appropriately.