The Taíno (means “peace” in their language, a mix of Arawak Native) natives of the Great Antilles, were the people who greeted Columbus, and with that, have changed the source of history.
On Nov.23,1493, on Christopher Columbus’s second voyage to the “new world,” he landed somewhere in Puerto Rico on what is known now as the city of Aguadilla. He saw these middle height, bronze skinned people, totally naked, but decorated with paint and feathers, people.
The first word that came from these mysterious people mouths were, “taíno.”
This word meant peace, and that is what Columbus called them for then on, and was surprised at how peaceful and organized they were, and said that their language was the so sweet and the best he have ever heard. Actually, the taino people did not call themselves taino, but Boricua and the island Columbus landed on, Borinquen.
Boricua means ‘people of valiant and noble lord’ and Borinquen means ‘home of the valiant and noble lord’.
The Taino were not only in Puerto Rico. They were in the Great Antilles (Puerto Rico, Cuba, Hispanola (Dominican Republic and Haiti]) and in the Bahamas.
The Taíno were an Arawak people who were the indigenous people of the Caribbean and Florida. At the time of European contact in the late 15th century, they were the principal inhabitants of most of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola (the Dominican Republic and Haiti), and Puerto Rico.
In the Greater Antilles, the northern Lesser Antilles, and the Bahamas, they were known as the Lucayans. They spoke the Taíno language, one of theArawakan languages. The ancestors of the Taíno entered the Caribbean from South America.
At the time of contact, the Taíno were divided into three broad groups, known as the Western Taíno (Jamaica, most of Cuba, and the Bahamas), the Classic Taíno (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico) and the Eastern Taíno (northern Lesser Antilles), and other groups of Taíno nations of Florida, such as the Tequesta, Calusa, Jaega, Ais, and other groups. Taíno groups were in conflict with the Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles.
I was born in Puerto Rico, a tiny island in the Caribbean,a commonwealth (“colony”) of the United States since the early 50’s. I was raised and lived there until my adult life. At the height of the Civil Rights Movement I was in my early teens. I must confess that I wasn’t aware of the events the country was going through.
Of course, I remember when JFK was shot and killed as well as when the same happened to Martin Luther King, Jr.
What I didn’t experience first hand is all that I have learned through time and reviewing historical data. Race in my country wasn’t that big of a deal because we are all a mixture of Spanish, African and Taino blood and ancestry.
I can’t begin to fathom what the “American Negro“, now called African American, went through. One would like to think that after the Civil Rights Movement advances, the differences between races were resolved. Some current events like Ferguson confirm that this isn’t the case. This movie portrays history in a real, touching, deeply inspiring and eye-opening way.
Sad to see our current reality.
Selma is a 2014 American historical drama film directed by Ava DuVernay and written by Paul Webb and Ava DuVernay. It is based on the 1965 Selma to Montgomery voting rights marches led by James Bevel, Hosea Williams, and Martin Luther King, Jr. of SCLC and John Lewis of SNCC. The film stars David Oyelowo as King, Tom Wilkinson as President Lyndon Johnson, Common as James Bevel, Tim Roth as George Wallace, and Carmen Ejogo as Coretta Scott King.
Selma had four Golden Globe Award nominations, including Best Motion Picture – Drama, Best Director, and Best Actor, and won for Best Original Song. It is also nominated for Best Picture and Best Original Song at the 87th Academy Awards.
In 1964, Alabama, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. is practicing a speech in front of the mirror. He stops to call in his wife Coretta Scott to comment on his tie, feeling it makes him look undignified in the face of those he is set to honor. Coretta fixes her husband’s tie and assures him he looks fine. The couple then goes to a ceremony where King accepts the Nobel Peace Prize and recites his speech. Four young girls are walking down the steps at the 16th Street Baptist Church. They are talking about the way they do their hair when an explosion goes off, killing all the girls. Annie Lee Cooper fills out a form to become a registered voter. The white registrar asks her how many county judges are in Alabama. She says there are 67, but the registrar tells her to name them all. When she cannot, he denies her application.
King meets with President Lyndon B. Johnson and his adviser Lee C. White over the issue of black citizens not being allowed to register for voting. King acknowledges that the whites are illegally denying the registration forms of the black community, while also pointing out the senseless acts of violence against them, including the church bombing. What King and his group seek is federal legislation for black citizens to register for voting unencumbered. Johnson, however, is more concerned about getting rid of poverty in the country.
King travels to Selma, Alabama with Ralph Abernathy, Andrew Young, James Orange, and Diane Nash. They meet with Reverend James Bevel and other civil rights activists of the group SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) like Hosea Williams and Amelia Boynton at a hotel. As King is signing in, a young white man approaches him and socks King in the mouth. Johnson talks to J. Edgar Hoover about the incident. Hoover thinks King is becoming a problem, and he suggests to cause friction at home to weaken the dynamic, knowing there is tension between King and his wife. King goes home. Coretta shows reservations over her husband’s actions and concern for her family’s well-being. At night, King calls Mahalia Jackson to help him reach out and hear the Lord’s voice.
King speaks before a congregation of other civil rights activists and hopeful voters to rouse up their spirits and assure them that they will not let their oppressors keep them from reaching their goal. Their plan is to march from Selma to Montgomery, and their actions will be non-violent, despite knowing that the authorities would not hesitate to utilize violence against them.
King and his followers march through Selma before a crowd of white folks and the ruthless Sheriff Jim Clark. The marchers kneel down and put their hands on the back of their heads. One man fails to kneel as his wife and son help him. Clark and his cohorts go over to them and try to force the man down. When his son defends his father, Clark nearly strikes him with his club, until Annie hits Clark and knocks him down. In retaliation, Clark and his goons force Annie to the ground. King and many of his followers are subsequently arrested and incarcerated.
Eventually, the activists all gather for the final march to Montgomery. This is juxtaposed with actual footage of the real life marches. King delivers one more speech about how the black citizens are equal to the white citizens.
~As he continues his speech, we see some text on the film’s real life counterparts~
Andrew Young was appointed UN Ambassador under President Carter after serving three terms in Congress, and was later elected mayor of Atlanta for two terms
George Wallace unsuccessfully ran for president four times and was paralyzed by an assassination attempt in 1972
Sheriff Jim Clark was defeated by an overwhelming black vote and was never sheriff again
Viola Liuzzo was murdered by a Klansman hours after the march while trying to escort marchers back to Selma
Coretta Scott King established The King Center and successfully lobbied for a holiday in her husband’s honor. She never remarried
Five months later, Lyndon Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965 with Martin Luther King, Jr. at his side. King would go on to lead the American civil rights movement for 13 years through nonviolence until his assassination in 1968. He was 39 years old.
King concludes his speech by saying that freedom is coming closer thanks to the grace of the Lord.
“SELMA” is the story of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s historic struggle to secure voting rights for all people – a dangerous and terrifying campaign that culminated with the epic march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, and led to President Johnson signing the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
I’m a student of the main seven chakras in our body. I have read, posted and worked with them on a consistent basis. As I was looking for a topic for this “At the end of the day ….” post, I learned something new.
I found the video included at the end of this information.
I hope that you, dear reader, consider this an interesting topic which may motivate you for further research.
(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)
Subpersonal chakras are five chakras, in addition to the usual seven, that some yogis assert are located in descending order below the feet as far as about four feet (about 1.3 meters) below the feet.
Credit for this image
This image is copyrighted to Transference Healing, 2005.
~~Earth star chakra~~
The Earth star chakra is a chakra believed by some New Age and Neo-pagan groups to exist in line with one’s spine six inches (about 40 centimeters) below the feet (thus, one would be carrying it with oneself six inches below the surface of Earth wherever one walks, and of course six inches below oneself wherever else one goes, as for example when flying on an airplane or doing rock climbing).
However, others describe the Earth star chakra as being “two arms lengths” below the feet, which would make it about four feet (about 130 centimeters) below the feet.
The five subpersonal chakras are numbered from the nearest one to the body, a few inches below the feet, to the fifth one, two arms lengths below the feet.
Incarnation Point Chakra (a few inches below the feet) – practical implementation of the soul journey for the current life Incarnator Chakra (about 40 cm below the feet) – connection to ancestry, tribe, clan Subpersonal Leadership Chakra (below the feet at an arm’s length) – Anima, in contact with the female archetype Earth Centering Chakra (below the feet at an arm’s length) – links to the archaic earth energy
Earth Star Chakra (below the feet at two arms’ lengths) – exchange and relationship to the Earth goddess