Ebola virus disease (EVD), Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola is a disease of humans and other mammals caused by an ebolavirus.
Symptoms start two days to three weeks after contracting the virus, with a fever, sore throat, muscle pain and headaches. Typically, vomiting, diarrhea and rash follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys. Around this time, affected people may begin to bleed both within the body and externally. Death, if it occurs, is typically 6 to 16 days from the start of symptoms and often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss.
I just find it ironic that there’s outcry about this epidemic when we, as a nation, have a day in, day out lifestyle that has created a series of serious epidemics of major proportions yet the outcry for this has been deafened by years of ignorance, apathy, inaction, carelessness.
Throughout the world, thousands of zoo animals held in artificial environments with little stimulation, enrichment or opportunity to hide from the public gaze, display unnatural behavior patterns. Even in the better zoos, abnormal behavior can be widespread, and include repeated pacing, rocking, vomiting and even self mutilation.
Some of these stereotyped behaviors displayed by bored and frustrated animals have their basis in activities that occur naturally the wild. But in the impoverished confines of captivity, these behaviors can become compulsive and unnatural.
In 1992, Bill Travers first coined the term zoochosis to describe this obsessive, repetitive behavior, and described zoo animals behaving abnormally as zoochotic.
The terms are now widely recognized and in the public domain, being used in a wide range of journals and publications.
Bar biting The repeated biting, rubbing the mouth along, or even sucking on the bars of an enclosure, which can result in damage to teeth and the mouth area particularly if the bars are rusty. Can be displayed by captive bears
Tongue playing The continual licking on walls, bars or gates in an enclosure. Can be displayed by giraffes and camels
Pacing Continuous walking back and forth, following the same path. Signs of regular pacing include definite paths worn in the ground. Can be displayed by big cats
Circling An acute form of pacing, the following of a defined route placing feet in exactly the same position each time. Can be displayed by elephants & bears
Neck twisting Unnatural twisting and rolling of the neck, often flicking the head around or bending the neck back. It can be combined with a pacing behavior. Can be displayed by giraffe, llama & monkey species
Vomiting A form of bulimia¹, the repeated vomiting, eating of vomit and regurgitation. Can be displayed by gorillas & chimpanzees
Coprophagia Playing with and eating excrement, smearing it on wall and glass. Can be displayed by gorillas & chimpanzees.
Rocking Sitting, sometimes hugging the legs, rocking forwards and back. A recognised symptom of mental illness in humans. Can be displayed by chimpanzees
Swaying Standing in one place and swaying the head and shoulders, even the whole body, from side to side. A behaviour exhibited by mentally ill humans. Can be displayed by elephants & bears
Head bobbing & weaving Standing in one place and continuously moving the head up and down, or weaving to and fro. Can be displayed by bears and elephants
Overgrooming Grooming to an excessive extent, pulling out hair or feathers, often leaving bald patches, irritated and broken skin. Can be displayed bears & parrots
Self mutilation Self-inflicted physical harm, such as biting or chewing tail or leg, or hitting a head against a wall. Can be displayed by big cats, bears & primates