MEDICAL CORNER …. understanding different blood types!!


~~April 15, 2014~~

BY POPULAR DEMAND: A handy blood type chart for you.

Although all blood is made of the same basic elements, not all blood is alike. In fact, there are eight different common blood types, which are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens – substances that can trigger an immune response if they are foreign to the body. Since some antigens can trigger a patient’s immune system to attack the transfused blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching.

THIS IS WHY IT’S SO IMPORTANT THAT BLOOD TYPES BE DETERMINED PRIOR TO BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS. TYPES HAVE TO BE COMPATIBLE TO PREVENT A NEGATIVE REACTION WHICH COULD ULTIMATELY END IN DEATH

There are four major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens – A and B – on the surface of red blood cells:

  • Group A – has only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma)
  • Group B – has only the B antigen on red cells (and A antibody in the plasma)
  • Group AB – has both A and B antigens on red cells (but neither A nor B antibody in the plasma)
  • Group O – has neither A nor B antigens on red cells (but both A and B antibody are in the plasma)
There are very specific ways in which blood types must be matched for a safe transfusion: 

In addition to the A and B antigens, there is a third antigen called the Rh factor, which can be either present (+) or absent ( – ). In general, Rh negative blood is given to Rh-negative patients, and Rh positive blood or Rh negative blood may be given to Rh positive patients.

  • The universal red cell donor has Type O negative blood type.
  • The universal plasma donor has Type AB positive blood type.

~~SOURCES~~

https://www.facebook.com/StepIn2MyGreenWorld

http://www.redcrossblood.org/learn-about-blood/blood-types

~~Blood Types~~

In 1901, scientist Karl Landsteiner reported that blood could be classified into “types.” By matching these blood types, a successful blood transfusion could be made between a healthy donor and a patient in need of blood. Today, hospital blood banks maintain an assortment of blood products (red blood cells, plasma, platelets, etc) in a variety of blood types.

There are four main blood types: A, B, AB, and O. Each of these blood types is either RH positive (+) or Rh negative (-). So, if someone has type B blood, they have either B+ or B- blood.

The blood type of a patient determines which blood types they are able to receive as a transfusion. The blood type of a blood donor also determines who can receive their blood donation.

blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).

These antigens may be proteinscarbohydratesglycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens can stem from one allele (or very closely linked genes) and collectively form a blood group system.

Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A total of 32 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). The two most important ones are ABO and the RhD antigen; they determine someone’s blood type (A, B, AB and O, with + and – denoting RhD status).

Many pregnant women carry a fetus with a blood type different from their own, and the mother can form antibodies against fetal RBCs. Sometimes these maternal antibodies are IgG, a small immunoglobulin, which can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs, which in turn can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn called erythroblastosis fetalis, an illness of low fetal blood counts that ranges from mild to severe. Sometimes this is lethal for the fetus; in these cases it is called hydrops fetalis.

Blood type (or blood group) is determined, in part, by the ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells.

People with O- blood are called “universal donors” because any patient can receive O- red blood cells. Hospitals use O- red blood cells to provide emergency care for patients needing immediate transfusions. In addition, hospitals maintain a supply of O- blood for patients with an O- blood type, who can only receive O- red blood cells.

On the other end of the spectrum, very few people can receive AB+ red blood cells. However, people with AB+ blood can receive red blood cell transfusions of any blood type, and are known as “universal recipients.” AB blood is special for another reason; plasma donations from people with AB blood can be safely transfused to anyone, so AB donors are “universal plasma donors.”

To learn more about the distribution of blood types in America, click here.

~~SOURCES~~

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_type

http://digitallydelicious.wordpress.com/2008/10/23/the-blood-type-diet/

http://www.communityblood.org/commbc/what+is+blood/blood+type.asp

~~Core Four Blood Types~~

~~Published on Oct 23, 2013~~

Different blood types and the way each one serves patient needs.

The Core Four blood types are O- O+ A- and B

We ALL are connected through BLOOD TYPE!!

We ALL are ONE!! 

WeR1

Does God Love Uganda? – new film explores the ways in which Western Ideologues are at the root of country’s anti-gay laws


The state of affairs …. How American fundamentalism has influenced the decisions and laws made in soveirgn countries ….. related to their LGBT communities. Shameful!!

United States Hypocrisy

"When the missionaries arrived, the Africans had the land and the missionaries had the Bible. They taught us to pray with our eyes closed. When we opened them, they had the land and we had the Bible." - Jomo Kenyatta; Revolutionary Leader and Kenya's first post-colonial President. When the missionaries arrived, the Africans had the land and the missionaries had the Bible. They taught us to pray with our eyes closed. When we opened them, they had the land and we had the Bible.”
Jomo Kenyatta; Revolutionary Leader and Kenya‘s first post-colonial President.

The highly-esteemed director of the 2010 Academy Award-winning film, Music by Prudence, is back with a movie that critics call the most eye-opening documentary in years. Roger Ross William’s latest work, God Loves Uganda, brings to light a disturbing truth that many Americans will have difficulty coming to terms with: that America’s leading evangelists and “Holy people” are among the primary architects and proponents of Uganda’s incredibly repressive Anti-Homosexuality legislation. The bill, which previously included a provision allowing death as the penalty for homosexuals in Uganda, was slightly amended last year after an immense amount of international pressure. The…

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At the end of the day …. The Piano Guys Series #7!!


~~April 15, 2014~~

The Piano Guys are an American musical group consisting of Jon SchmidtSteven Sharp Nelson, Paul Anderson, and Al van der Beek.

They gained popularity through YouTube, where they posted piano and cello renditions of popular songs and classical music. Schmidt and Nelson’s music is accompanied by professional-quality videos shot and edited by Paul Anderson. 

Today we are featuring “Arwen’s Vigil” from their first CD. 

Since the beginning of The Piano Guys, “Lord of the Rings” has been our most requested work. As we reach one million subscribers we thought it fitting to dedicate this arrangement to our “subs.” 

“When Aragorn was abroad, from afar Arwen watched over him in thought”

–Lord of the Rings-

The YouTube stars The Piano Guys have added another popular franchise to their repertoire. This time they’ve covered The Lord of the Rings.

Back in September, 2012, The Piano Guys signed a record deal with Sony. They were told by Sony, “We love what you guys do, we want to take it to the next level, keep doing what you’re doing.”

Who exactly are The Piano Guys?

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The Piano Guys cover a variety of music. They’ve covered everything from Mozart to Adele. There are two on-screen musicians in the group – Jon Schmidt plays the piano while Steven Sharp Nelson plays the cello. There are three other equally important members. Paul Anderson, Tel Stewart, and Al van der Beek do the behind-the-scenes work that makes the great videos that The Piano Guys produce.

The Piano Guys excellent cover is of The Lord of the Rings. They’ve covered other fandom related music before. From Harry PotterStar Wars and Pirates of the Caribbean to Adele, One Direction, and Bruno Mars, The Piano Guys have a large repertoire of covers.

 

After signing with Sony we were putting together our first official release. Just before the deadline we looked at the song list and all agreed the album needed to include a new original piece.

But we had 48 hours ….

“OUR VISION IS TO CREATE MUSIC AND VIDEOS THAT INSPIRE & UPLIFT.
WHATEVER WE DO, WE PUT OUR HEART AND SOULS INTO EVERY NOTE AND FRAME.”

~~SOURCES~~

http://thepianoguys.com/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Piano_Guys

https://www.facebook.com/PianoGuys

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tag/the-piano-guys

http://floridatheatre.com/event/piano-guys/

http://thepianoguys.com/portfolio/lord-of-the-rings-the-hobbit/

http://www.hypable.com/2012/11/22/the-piano-guys-lord-of-the-rings/

~~Lord of The Rings – The Hobbit (Piano/Cello Cover)~~

ThePianoGuys   

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~~Story behind the song~~

Since the beginning of The Piano Guys, “Lord of the Rings” has been our most requested work.

As we reach one million subscribers we wanted to dedicate this arrangement to our “subs.” This was an intimidating project — encompassing the power and the beauty of the many musical themes throughout the movies; capturing the emotion and the “epic” nature of the story; and all with a few cellos, a piano, and a couple Canon 5D Mark IIs.

We normally write our tunes during intense compositional binges — the bulk of our songs have been written within the period of a few days. This one was different. It was a drawn-out process during which we studied the music of The Lord of Rings, contemplated what themes to incorporate, how they could tell the story by flowing from one to the other.

We also spent a lot of time finding new ways to imitate instruments from various sections of the orchestra using Steve’s cellos — from the brass section through the woodwind section to the percussion section.

We love the story of The Lord of the Rings. It is a tale that has spiritual meaning for us. We love its messages — that “even the smallest person can change the course of the future,” that “there’s good in this world and it’s worth fighting for,” “All we have to decide is what to do with the time that is given to us” … and that everyone should have a “second breakfast.”

We love the poignant depiction of loyalty between the Fellowship of the Ring (we even included the “Fellowship” theme three times – at 0:18, 3:58 and at the end of the arrangement – to feel like a common thread in the music as it is in the story.) We wanted to paint these messages musically as vividly as possible.

Like so many things in the creative realm, and to paraphrase Mr. Bilbo Baggins, the hardest part was the first step.

After a brief introduction of the Hobbit Theme and Fellowship Theme (arguably the most relevant musical moments) we felt strongly that we needed to begin with the deeply touching melody that serves as the soundtrack to Arwen’s vision of her future son (in the extended version of Return of the King). That gave way to a Divinely-led journey from the Shire and Rivendell through Isengard and Rohan to Gondor’s victory over Mordor. We endeavored to represent each of the major allies and opposing forces in the story:

The Elves 0:44
The Ents 1:48
Rohan 2:08
Mordor and Isengard 2:32
Hobbits 3:08
Gondor 4:11

(Read rest of the story here http://thepianoguys.com/portfolio/lor… )

PGA6

We ALL are connected through MUSIC!!

We ALL are ONE!!

To “declaw” or to not “declaw” …. Cat world!


~~April 15, 2014~~

I have had cats all my life. I know how painful the scratches from those claws can be. I know how destructive they can be on furniture, clothes and any object that would serve as a scratching post. However, never once did I consider the practice of “declawing” even though I didn’t know what it entailed. 

For some reason, I never considered that option. I was talking to an animal activist about the dear cat that I have now. She really really pesky and gets into plenty of trouble. Hence the name: Double Trouble

The kids call her “Kitty“.

However, now that I’ve researched, I know that this would be something I wouldn’t do to any cat.

My friend Martin from …. http://mavadelo.wordpress.com/ …. made the following comment and I will “insert” it here:

DO NOT DECLAW YOUR CAT…. keep your hands of the mittens of your kittens.”

DT2

~~Double Trouble~~

Onychectomy, popularly known as declawing, is an operation to surgically remove an animal’s claws by means of the amputation of all or part of the distal phalanges, or end bones, of the animal’s toes. Because the claw develops from germinal tissue within the third phalanx, amputation of the bone is necessary to fully remove the claw. The terms “onychectomy” (origin: Greek ὄνυξ onycho, nail + ἐκτομή ektome, excision) and “declawing” imply mere claw removal, but a more appropriate description would be phalangectomy, excision of toe bone.

Decl1

Although common in North America, declawing is considered an act of animal cruelty in many countries (see “Declawing practices” below).

A lot of people take the idea of declawing their cat too lightly. Many do not understand what declawing is, thinking that it is some form of simply clipping the cat’s claws.

Too frequently, vets and clinic staff deliberately misinform and mislead clients into believing that declawing removes only the claws in the hopes that clients are left with the impression that the procedure is a “minor” surgery that doesn’t involve amputation of the end of the toe, ligaments and tendons.

In fact, this is a mutilating surgery that is banned in some countries due to its abusive and inhumane nature. These countries include, but are not limited to England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland, Ireland, Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Norway, Sweden, Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Slovenia, Spain, Portugal, Belgium, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand.

~~8 Reasons Why You Should Never Declaw Your Cats~~

Many people falsely assume that declawing is just like trimming your nails or getting a manicure. In reality, it is a painful and permanently crippling procedure.

The following are eight reasons why you should never declaw your feline friend

Ouch!

Cats scratch to exercise and enjoy themselves, maintain the condition of their nails, and stretch their muscles.

While we hope that your cat remains safely indoors at all times, if he or she were ever to get outside without claws, your cat would be far more vulnerable to predators and abusers.

Many people think that declawed cats are safer around babies, but in fact, the lack of claws makes many cats feel so insecure that they tend to bite more often as a means of self-protection.

Cats are in pain when they awake from the surgery, and the pain continues afterward. Nails can grow back inside the paw, causing extreme pain that you can’t see.

Without claws, even house-trained cats might start “doing their business” outside the litter-box in an attempt to mark their territory.

Our toes are crucial to our balance, and it’s no different for cats! Because of impaired balance after the procedure, declawed cats have to relearn how to walk, much as a person would after losing his or her toes.

Nearly two dozen countries — including Australia, England, and Japan — ban or severely restrict declawing surgeries. And many veterinarians in the United States refuse to perform the procedure.

~~What You Can Do Instead~~

Trim your cat’s nails regularly. When the cat is relaxed and unafraid, gently press on his or her toes until the claws extend. Use a pair of nail clippers, and cut only the tip of the nail, taking care not to damage the vein, or “quick.” The nail hook is what tears upholstery, so removing it virtually eliminates the potential for damage.
Buy multiple scratching posts. Ideally, you should have two or more scratching posts in your home. Make sure that they’re sturdy and tall enough to allow your cat to stretch (3 feet or taller). Soft, fluffy carpeted posts won’t fulfill your cat’s clawing needs, so look for rougher posts.
Teach your cat where to scratch and where not to scratch. Encourage your cat to use the scratching posts by sprinkling catnip on the posts once a week. Discourage your cat from scratching furniture by using a loud, firm voice whenever he or she starts to scratch—cats don’t like loud noises! Never use physical force. Instead, you might try using a squirt gun full of lukewarm water directed at your cat’s back.

~~SOURCES~~

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Onychectomy

http://www.examiner.com/article/declawing-cats

http://www.peta.org/living/companion-animals/8-reasons-never-declaw-cats/#ixzz2yznPyFBM

http://www.examiner.com/article/declawing-a-cat-get-the-facts

~~Declawing practices~~

Laws and policies governing onychectomy vary around the world. For example, many European countries prohibit or significantly restrict the practice, as do AustraliaNew ZealandJapan, and Turkey. It is banned in at least 22 countries. The list below gives an overview of the situation in different parts of the world.

~~Australia~~~

In Australia, declawing has never been common, and for all practical purpose, does not exist. Nationwide legislation was recently enacted that prohibits the declawing of cats except for medical need of the cat. The Australian Veterinary Association’s policy states: “Surgical alteration to the natural state of an animal is acceptable only if it is necessary for the health and welfare of the animal concerned. Performance of any surgical procedure for other than legitimate medical reasons is unacceptable.”

~~Brazil~~

In Brazil, declawing is not allowed by the Federal Council of Veterinary Medicine. [34]

~~Israel~~

In Israel, the Knesset Education Committee voted unanimously to send a bill banning the declawing of cats not for medical reasons. The bill has passed second and third readings on November 28, 2011, effectively making declawing a criminal offense with penalty of 1 year in prison or a fine of 75,000 Shekels.

~~Europe~~

In many European countries the practice is forbidden either under the terms of the European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals or under Local Animal Abuse Laws, unless there it is for “veterinary medical reasons or for the benefit of any particular animal.” Some European countries go further, such as FinlandEstonia,[37] the NetherlandsGermany and Switzerland, where declawing cats for non-medical reasons is always illegal under their laws against cruelty to animals.

~~Austria~~

In Austria, the Federal Act on the Protection of Animals, in Section 7, states, surgical procedures “carried out for other than therapeutic or diagnostic purposes…are prohibited, in particular…declawing.”[

~~United Kingdom~~

In the United Kingdom, declawing was outlawed by the Animal Welfare Act 2006, which explicitly prohibited “interference with the sensitive tissues or bone structure of the animal, otherwise than for the purposes of its medical treatment.” Even before the 2006 Act, however, declawing was extremely uncommon, to the extent that most people had never seen a declawed cat. The procedure was considered cruel by almost all British vets, who refused to perform it except on medical grounds. The Guide to Professional Conduct of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons stated that declawing was “only acceptable where, in the opinion of the veterinary surgeon, injury to the animal is likely to occur during normal activity. It is not acceptable if carried out for the convenience of the owner … the removal of claws, particularly those which are weight bearing, to preclude damage to furnishings is not acceptable.”

~~United States~~

Declawing is legal in most U.S. jurisdictions. It is estimated that 25% of owned cats in the United States are declawed (Patronek 2001).

~~Declawing: Jackson Galaxy Just Says No!~~

~~Published on Jan 6, 2014~~

Is declawing bad for cats? You bet it is! Jackson Galaxy sets the record straight in today’s episode of Cat Mojo.

Welcome to Cat Mojo! Each week Jackson will share his thoughts on everything from cat-related issues like declawing and squirt gun diplomacy to his craziest behind the scene stories as a cat behaviorist. Come join the feline frenzy, feel the mojo, share your love of cats and delve deep into the mind of Jackson Galaxy. We are all #TeamCatMojo!

Alternative to declaw: https://www.softpaws.com/

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We ALL are connected through NATURE!! 

We ALL are ONE!!

AnCruelInform

MEDICAL CORNER …. What are cataracts?


~~April 15, 2014~~

Cataracts are cloudy areas in the lens inside the eye – which is normally clear.

Cataracts can develop in one or both eyes. If they develop in both eyes, one will be more severely affected than the other. A normally clear lens allows light to pass through to the back of the eye, so that the patient can see well-defined images.

If a part of the lens becomes opaque light does not pass through easily and the patient’s vision becomes blurry – like looking through cloudy water or a fogged-up window. The more opaque (cloudier) the lens becomes, the worse the person’s vision will be.

~~There are two types of cataracts~~

Age related cataracts – they appear later in life; the most common form.

Congenital cataracts (childhood cataracts) – these may be present when the baby is born, or shortly after birth. Cataracts may also be diagnosed in older babies and children – these are sometimes referred to as developmental, infantile or juvenile cataracts. Researchers from the University Zurich were the first to identify the chromosomal location and exact molecular defect in the coding region of the gene responsible for a childhood cataract.

~~Source~~ 

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/157510.php

cataract is a clouding of the lens inside the eye which leads to a decrease in vision. It is the most common cause of blindness and is conventionally treated with surgery. Visual loss occurs because opacification of the lens obstructs light from passing and being focused on to the retina at the back of the eye.

It is most commonly due to biological aging, but there are a wide variety of other causes. Over time, yellow-brown pigment is deposited within the lens and this, together with disruption of the normal architecture of the lens fibers, leads to reduced transmission of light, which in turn leads to visual problems.

Those with cataracts commonly experience difficulty in appreciating colors and changes in contrast, driving, reading, recognizing faces, and coping with glare from bright lights.

~~Signs and symptoms~~

The only way to know if you have cataracts for certain is when your ophthalmologist does a dilated eye exam. Get a baseline exam at age 40, when early signs of disease and changes in vision may start to occur. Your ophthalmologist will let you know how often you should return for follow-up exams. At any point, if you have symptoms or risks for eye disease, see your ophthalmologist.  Because your risk for cataracts and other eye diseases increases as you get older, starting at age 65 you should see your ophthalmologist every year.  A complete eye examination will rule out any other condition that may be causing blurred vision or eye problems.

Most age-related cataracts develop gradually. As a result, you may not immediately notice changes in your vision when cataracts first develop.

~~Symptoms~~

Painless clouded, blurry or dim vision;
Increasing difficulty seeing at night or in low light;
Sensitivity to light and glare, seeing halos around lights;
Colors seem faded or yellowed;
The need for brighter light for reading and other activities;
Frequent changes in eyeglass or contact lens prescription; or
Double vision within one eye.

~~SOURCE~~

~~Classification~~

~~Cross-sectional view, showing the position of the human lens~~

Cataracts may be partial or complete, stationary or progressive, or hard or soft. The main types of age-related cataracts are nuclear sclerosis, cortical, and posterior subcapsular.

Nuclear sclerosis is the most common type of cataract and involves the central or ‘nuclear’ part of the lens. Over time, this becomes hard or ‘sclerotic’ due to condensation of lens nucleus and deposition of brown pigment within the lens. In advanced stages it is called brunescent cataract. This type of cataract can present with a shift to nearsightedness and causes problems with distance vision while reading is less affected.

Cortical cataracts are due to opacification of the lens cortex (outer layer). They occur when changes in the water content of the periphery of the lens causes fissuring. When these cataracts are viewed through anophthalmoscope or other magnification system, the appearance is similar to white spokes of a wheel pointing inwards. Symptoms often include problems with glare and light scatter at night.

Posterior subcapsular cataracts are cloudy at back of the lens adjacent to the capsule (or bag) in which the lens sits. Because light becomes more focused toward the back of the lens, they can cause disproportionate symptoms for their size.

A mature cataract is one in which all of the lens protein is opaque while the immature cataract has some transparent protein. In the hypermature cataract, also known as Morgagnian cataract the lens proteins have become liquid.

Congenital cataract, which may be detected in adults, has a different classification and includes lamellar, polar, and sutural cataract.

~~SOURCES~~ 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cataract

~~Surgical MANAGEMENT~~

Cataract surgery, using a temporal approach phacoemulsification probe (in right hand) and “chopper” (in left hand) being done under operating microscope at a Navy medical center. Slit lamp photo of posterior capsular opacification visible a few months after implantation of intraocular lens in eye, seen on retroillumination

Cataract removal can be performed at any stage and no longer requires ripening of the lens. Surgery is usually ‘outpatient’ and performed using local anesthesia. Approximately 90% of patients can achieve a corrected vision of 20/40 or better after surgery.

Several recent evaluations found that surgery can only meet expectations when there is significant functional impairment from poor vision prior to surgery. Visual function estimates such as VF-14 have been found to give more realistic estimates than visual acuity testing alone. In some developed countries a trend to overuse cataract surgery has been noted which may lead to disappointing results.

~~SOURCE~~

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cataract

~~Cataract Surgery 3D Animation O. Findl, MD, Vienna~~

~~Uploaded on Jan 30, 2009~~

Cataract surgery 3D computer animation explained by Oliver Findl, MD.

~~Eye News TV-Watch live surgery using the laser cataract system~~

How does it work?

~~Uploaded on Jul 8, 2011~~

“Laser refractive cataract surgery is without a doubt the most technologically advanced option for cataract patients,” explains Dr. Eric Donnenfeld from Opthalmic Consultants of Long Island.

We ALL are connected through HUMANITY!! 

We ALL are ONE!! 

WeR1